The Boston Citgo sign, all 3,600 square LED feet of which has served as the backdrop to Red Sox games since 1965, is now officially a "pending landmark."

Spanish Surrealist Salvador Dalí spent much of the 1940s in the U.S., avoiding World War II and its aftermath. He was a well-known fixture on the art scene in Monterey, Calif. — and that's where the largest collection of Dalí's work on the West Coast is now open to the public.

Copyright 2016 Fresh Air. To see more, visit Fresh Air.

The middle of summer is when the surprises in publishing turn up. I'm talking about those quietly commanding books that publishers tend to put out now, because fall and winter are focused on big books by established authors. Which brings us to The Dream Life of Astronauts, by Patrick Ryan, a very funny and touching collection of nine short stories that take place in the 1960s and '70s around Cape Canaveral, Fla.

When the United Kingdom voted to leave the European Union last month, the seaside town of Port Talbot in Wales eagerly went along with the move. Brexit was approved by some 57 percent of the town's residents.

Now some of them are wondering if they made the wrong decision.

The June 23 Brexit vote has raised questions about the fate of the troubled Port Talbot Works, Britain's largest surviving steel plant — a huge, steam-belching facility that has long been the town's biggest employer.

Solar Impulse 2 has landed in Cairo, completing the penultimate leg of its attempt to circumnavigate the globe using only the power of the sun.

The trip over the Mediterranean included a breathtaking flyover of the Pyramids. Check it out:

President Obama is challenging Americans to have an honest and open-hearted conversation about race and law enforcement. But even as he sits down at the White House with police and civil rights activists, Obama is mindful of the limits of that approach.

"I've seen how inadequate words can be in bringing about lasting change," the president said Tuesday at a memorial service for five law officers killed last week in Dallas. "I've seen how inadequate my own words have been."

Mice watching Orson Welles movies may help scientists explain human consciousness.

At least that's one premise of the Allen Brain Observatory, which launched Wednesday and lets anyone with an Internet connection study a mouse brain as it responds to visual information.

The FBI says it is giving up on the D.B. Cooper investigation, 45 years after the mysterious hijacker parachuted into the night with $200,000 in a briefcase, becoming an instant folk figure.

"Following one of the longest and most exhaustive investigations in our history," the FBI's Ayn Dietrich-Williams said in a statement, "the FBI redirected resources allocated to the D.B. Cooper case in order to focus on other investigative priorities."

This is the first in a series of essays concerning our collective future. The goal is to bring forth some of the main issues humanity faces today, as we move forward to uncertain times. In an effort to be as thorough as possible, we will consider two kinds of threats: those due to natural disasters and those that are man-made. The idea is to expose some of the dangers and possible mechanisms that have been proposed to deal with these issues. My intention is not to offer a detailed analysis for each threat — but to invite reflection and, hopefully, action.

Pages

Younger Women Have Rising Rate Of Advanced Breast Cancer, Study Says

Feb 27, 2013
Originally published on February 27, 2013 8:19 am

Researchers say more young American women are being diagnosed with advanced breast cancer.

It's a newly recognized trend. The numbers are small, but it's been going on for a generation. And the trend has accelerated in recent years.

The discovery had unusual origins in a Houston book group about seven years ago. Three of the women in the group were diagnosed with breast cancer. Alison Henning, a geologist and mother of two young boys, was one of them.

"The fact that I know two other people in my circle of friends who've been diagnosed with breast cancer under 40 is amazing," Henning tells Shots. "I mean, it's ridiculous in an otherwise very healthy population."

One of the women was Dr. Rebecca Johnson, who was diagnosed at age 27. She's now a pediatric cancer specialist at Seattle Children's Hospital.

Johnson kept in touch with Henning after she moved to Seattle, and she wondered about the bigger picture.

"The going wisdom is that breast cancer is uncommon in young women compared to older women," Johnson says. "But I wondered how common it actually was."

She's not the only one.

"There was an impression among doctors who treat women with breast cancer that they were seeing more young women who had advanced disease," Dr. Len Lichtenfeld of the American Cancer Society tells Shots.

But apparently, no one ever investigated.

Johnson decided to do a national study. It's published this week in the Journal of the American Medical Association.

It found that metastatic breast cancer — disease that spread to the bones or other organs — tripled in incidence among women younger than 40 between 1976 and 2009. These are women whose cancer had already spread by the time it was diagnosed.

But the actual numbers are small. About 800 women younger than 40 are being diagnosed with advanced cancer nowadays, compared with 250 a year in the mid-1970s.

The research has uncovered other troubling things. Incidence has gone up fastest in younger women — ages 25 to 34. The trend affects women of all ethnic backgrounds, in rural areas as well as cities, and it has been accelerating in recent years.

What does Johnson think this all means? "Well, it suggests to us that the trend is real. And it certainly suggests that the acceleration is happening at an exponential rate," she says. "It tells us nothing about why the increase is occurring, of course."

Lichtenfeld, who is the cancer society's deputy chief medical officer, says one thing that famously distinguishes women of this generation is that they've been delaying childbirth. And most of the cancer increase involves tumors that are sensitive to the hormone estrogen, levels of which soar during pregnancy.

"There is some thinking on our part that this is related to perhaps delay in childbirth or to the actual effects of pregnancy itself in this age group," he says. "That may have something to do with the hormonal relationship."

Lichtenfeld says another possible cause is toxic chemicals in the environment. Or possibly increasing obesity — though obesity in adolescents and young women may actually protect against breast cancer.

Lichtenfeld says women shouldn't overreact to these findings.

"When people hear about research like this, they tend to become far more concerned than the numbers reflect," he says. "These are very small numbers. Yes, this is a very serious problem for women impacted by this disease and their families."

But he says scientists should and will investigate what's going on.

"When we see trends that continue to increase over time, we have to be concerned," Lichtenfeld says.

And Henning, the Houston woman who helped inspire the study, says young women should pay attention.

"If you think that something's wrong or feels funny, follow through yourself," she says. "Don't allow your doctors to dismiss it just based on your age. You have to be your own advocate."

Copyright 2013 NPR. To see more, visit http://www.npr.org/.

Transcript

RENEE MONTAGNE, HOST:

More young women are being diagnosed with advanced breast cancer. It's a newly recognized trend. The numbers are small, but it's been going on for a generation; and researchers say it's been accelerating in recent years. NPR's Richard Knox has this report on the findings, which appear in the current "Journal of the American Medical Association."

RICHARD KNOX, BYLINE: The discovery that breast cancer incidence is rising among women under 40 had unusual origins. It was in a Houston book group about seven years ago. Turns out three of the women in the group were diagnosed with breast cancer, and Alison Henning was one of them.

ALISON HENNING: The fact that I know two other people in my circle of friends who've been diagnosed with breast cancer under 40, is amazing. I mean, it's just - it's ridiculous, to me, in an otherwise very healthy population.

KNOX: One of the other women was Dr. Rebecca Johnson, who was diagnosed at the age of 27. She's now a pediatric cancer specialist at Seattle Children's Hospital. She kept in touch with Alison Henning after she moved to Seattle, and she wondered about the bigger picture.

DR. REBECCA JOHNSON: Sort of the going wisdom was that breast cancer is uncommon in young women, compared to older women. But I wondered how common it actually was.

KNOX: So Johnson decided to do a national study of breast cancer incidence in young women - the one that's published this week. It found that metastatic breast cancer - disease that's spread to the bones or other organs - tripled in incidence among women under 40, since 1976. These are women whose cancer had already spread by the time it was diagnosed. But the actual numbers of women are small. About 800 women under 40 are being diagnosed with advanced cancer nowadays, compared to 250 back then. By comparison, 212,000 U.S. women of all ages get breast cancer every year.

The research has uncovered other troubling things. Incidence has gone up fastest in younger women, 25 to 34. It affects women of all ethnic backgrounds, and it's been accelerating in recent years. I asked Johnson what she thinks all this means.

JOHNSON: Well, it suggests to us that the trend is real. And it certainly suggests to us that the acceleration is happening at an exponential rate. It tells us nothing about why the increase is occurring, of course.

KNOX: Dr. Len Lichtenfeld, of the American Cancer Society, says one thing that famously distinguishes women of this generation is that they've been delaying childbirth. And most of the cancer increase involves tumors that are sensitive to the hormone estrogen.

DR. LEN LICHTENFELD: There is some thinking, on our part, that this is related to perhaps delay in childbirth; or the actual effects of pregnancy itself, in this age group, that may have something to do with the hormonal relationship.

KNOX: Another possible cause is toxic chemicals in the environment or possibly, increasing obesity, although obesity in adolescents and young women may actually protect against breast cancer. Lichtenfeld says women shouldn't over-react to these findings

LICHTENFELD: When people hear about research like this, they tend to become far more concerned than the numbers reflect. These are very small numbers.

KNOX: But he says scientists should, and will, investigate what's going on.

LICHTENFELD: When we see trends that continue to increase over time, we have to be concerned.

KNOX: And Alison Henning, the Houston woman who helped inspire the new study, says young women should pay attention, too.

HENNING: If you think that something's wrong or feels funny, follow through yourself. Don't allow your doctors to dismiss it just based on your age.

KNOX: You have to be your own advocate, she says. Richard Knox, NPR News Transcript provided by NPR, Copyright NPR.