Presumptive Democratic presidential nominee Hillary Clinton was in Springfield, Ill., Wednesday where she sought to use the symbolism of a historic landmark to draw parallels to a present-day America that is in need of repairing deepening racial and cultural divides.

The Old State Capitol — where Abraham Lincoln delivered his famous "A house divided" speech in 1858 warning against the ills of slavery and where Barack Obama launched his presidential bid in 2007 — served as the backdrop for Clinton as she spoke of how "America's long struggle with race is far from finished."

Episode 711: Hooked on Heroin

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When we meet the heroin dealer called Bone, he has just shot up. He has a lot to say anyway. He tells us about his career--it pretty much tracks the evolution of drug use in America these past ten years or so. He tells us about his rough past. And he tells us about how he died a week ago. He overdosed on his own supply and his friend took his body to the emergency room, then left.

New British Prime Minister Theresa May announced six members of her Cabinet Wednesday.

Amid a sweeping crackdown on dissent in Egypt, security forces have forcibly disappeared hundreds of people since the beginning of 2015, according to a new report from Amnesty International.

It's an "unprecedented spike," the group says, with an average of three or four people disappeared every day.

The Republican Party, as it prepares for its convention next week has checked off item No. 1 on its housekeeping list — drafting a party platform. The document reflects the conservative views of its authors, many of whom are party activists. So don't look for any concessions to changing views among the broader public on key social issues.

Many public figures who took to Twitter and Facebook following the murder of five police officers in Dallas have faced public blowback and, in some cases, found their employers less than forgiving about inflammatory and sometimes hateful online comments.

As Venezuela unravels — with shortages of food and medicine, as well as runaway inflation — President Nicolas Maduro is increasingly unpopular. But he's still holding onto power.

"The truth in Venezuela is there is real hunger. We are hungry," says a man who has invited me into his house in the northwestern city of Maracaibo, but doesn't want his name used for fear of reprisals by the government.

The wiry man paces angrily as he speaks. It wasn't always this way, he says, showing how loose his pants are now.

Ask a typical teenage girl about the latest slang and girl crushes and you might get answers like "spilling the tea" and Taylor Swift. But at the Girl Up Leadership Summit in Washington, D.C., the answers were "intersectional feminism" — the idea that there's no one-size-fits-all definition of feminism — and U.N. climate chief Christiana Figueres.

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Why Is Cheating In Science Research On The Rise?

Oct 14, 2013
Originally published on October 14, 2013 6:19 pm



You're listening to ALL THINGS CONSIDERED from NPR News.

Cheating in science is not new, but the way it happens and the way it's detected are changing. There's a lot at stake in science research, everything from public health to valuable federal dollars.

And as Gigi Douban reports from Birmingham, Alabama, there are more people watching to keep researchers honest.

GIGI DOUBAN, BYLINE: About 60 science graduate students at the University of Alabama at Birmingham are working in small groups on a quiz.

UNIDENTIFIED MAN: Now it gets more complicated, though. This is where it started getting really tricky for me.


UNIDENTIFIED MAN: Okay, so we encouraged her to go talk to him. She didn't do it.


UNIDENTIFIED MAN: Now, you're going to have to do something because your colleague won't. So what (unintelligible)...

DOUBAN: The questions have to do with right and wrong in science research. Sometimes, the discussions get pretty heated. That's because issues like what do you do when you're under pressure to publish and you're faced with a shortcut, or what if a few labels fall off some samples? How do you reassign them? They don't all have clear answers.

JEFF ENGLER: You hear the level of noise. You hear the level of discussion, and I think that's a good thing.

DOUBAN: That's Jeff Engler, associate dean at the UAB Graduate School. He's training the next generation of scientists to do honest work. It's not something that comes automatically. Take the case years ago of the South Korean stem cell researcher. Scientists in the field thought he was doing groundbreaking research, so a lot of them put their own work on hold. Some even collaborated with him. Turns out, his data was faked and at least a year of science was lost.

Then there was the study that linked the mumps, measles and rubella vaccine to autism. It was more than 10 years before the scientific paper was retracted. In the meantime, that vaccine-autism connection was accepted by some and scores of parents opted not to vaccinate their kids. Dozens of articles spread the autism scare and other researchers based their work on that false data. It's important to note most scientists do not fake results. But for the ones who cheat, it's easier than ever.

DAVID WRIGHT: We received last year more than 400 allegations, which was just about double that of the year before.

DOUBAN: That's David Wright, director of the Federal Office of Research Integrity. It investigates misconduct allegations and has tracked them since 1994. He says most of the increase is driven by technology, especially Photoshop.

WRIGHT: It's enabled investigators using that technology to present their images much more vividly and directly than they could before. But it's also made it easier for people to manipulate images.

DOUBAN: Technology has also made it easier to catch stuff like this. The Office of Research Integrity has forensic tools on its website that anyone can download to spot phony data. So more people are watching, which could be one reason for the increase. Another is that science is more global. You might have research teams in Denmark, China and the U.S. collaborating.

WRIGHT: And when the research groups get bigger and bigger, it's not always easy to assign responsibility.

DOUBAN: How can faked results make it this far? Michael Kalichman is director of the Research Ethics Program at the University of California, San Diego. He says despite all the technology, we're still dealing with humans.

MICHAEL KALICHMAN: Scientists are not better members of the general public. There are people in science who will be sloppy, who will cut corners and who, worse, will intentionally mislead.

DOUBAN: There are enough that the Office of Research Integrity is hiring another staffer to keep up with misconduct claims. For NPR News, I'm Gigi Douban in Birmingham, Alabama. Transcript provided by NPR, Copyright NPR.