Amid a sweeping crackdown on dissent in Egypt, security forces have forcibly disappeared hundreds of people since the beginning of 2015, according to a new report from Amnesty International.

It's an "unprecedented spike," the group says, with an average of three or four people disappeared every day.

The Republican Party, as it prepares for its convention next week has checked off item No. 1 on its housekeeping list — drafting a party platform. The document reflects the conservative views of its authors, many of whom are party activists. So don't look for any concessions to changing views among the broader public on key social issues.

Many public figures who took to Twitter and Facebook following the murder of five police officers in Dallas have faced public blowback and, in some cases, found their employers less than forgiving about inflammatory and sometimes hateful online comments.

As Venezuela unravels — with shortages of food and medicine, as well as runaway inflation — President Nicolas Maduro is increasingly unpopular. But he's still holding onto power.

"The truth in Venezuela is there is real hunger. We are hungry," says a man who has invited me into his house in the northwestern city of Maracaibo, but doesn't want his name used for fear of reprisals by the government.

The wiry man paces angrily as he speaks. It wasn't always this way, he says, showing how loose his pants are now.

Ask a typical teenage girl about the latest slang and girl crushes and you might get answers like "spilling the tea" and Taylor Swift. But at the Girl Up Leadership Summit in Washington, D.C., the answers were "intersectional feminism" — the idea that there's no one-size-fits-all definition of feminism — and U.N. climate chief Christiana Figueres.

Copyright 2016 NPR. To see more, visit http://www.npr.org/.

Arizona Hispanics Poised To Swing State Blue

2 hours ago
Copyright 2016 NPR. To see more, visit http://www.npr.org/.

Copyright 2016 NPR. To see more, visit http://www.npr.org/.

Editor's note: This report contains accounts of rape, violence and other disturbing events.

Sex trafficking wasn't a major concern in the early 1980s, when Beth Jacobs was a teenager. If you were a prostitute, the thinking went, it was your choice.

Jacobs thought that too, right up until she came to, on the lot of a dark truck stop one night. She says she had asked a friendly-seeming man for a ride home that afternoon.

Copyright 2016 NPR. To see more, visit http://www.npr.org/.

Pages

What Hunter-Gatherers May Tell Us About Modern Obesity

Jun 13, 2013

In the wake of the 439 comments on my last post about obesity and weight-bias in our society, I've been thinking about issues of comparative health around the world and, as I have before, about the Paleo diet.

A vigorous thread on last week's post (see the top of the comments section) assailed the multi-million-dollar food industry and its manipulation of consumers in this country. That theme is echoed in a book I've just read, Michael Moss's Salt Sugar Fat. Moss's central point is that the giant food companies pursue a "deliberate and calculating" approach to ensure that the "allure" — indeed, the "bliss point" — of our favorite foods comes about through salt, sugar and fat in ways that keep us coming back for more, more, and more.

The result is, as we all know by now, zooming rates of obesity in this country and around the world.

In risk factors for obesity and poor health, though, poor diet isn't alone — lack of exercise is considered a major culprit as well. After all, we in the West have diverged from that original hunter-gatherer lifestyle that Paleo advocates love to evoke, and we know that hunter-gatherers not only eat minimal levels of salt, sugar, and fat but also expend far more energy than we ourselves do when they forage actively across large swaths of the landscape.

Don't they?

Thanks to a pointer by Adam van Arsdale in a great review article in the new issue of American Anthropologist, I made time this week to read a paper from 2012 that offers a surprising answer to this question.

In "Hunter-Gatherer Energetics and Human Obesity," anthropologist Herman Pontzer and his co-authors take direct aim at one aspect of the popular association between obesity and modern lifestyle. Pontzer et al., compared energy expenditure levels of Hadza hunter-gatherers living in Tanzania with people in the United States and Europe living more sedentary lifestyles.

Because the Hadza are vigorously active as they forage — the men hunt with bows and also gather honey, the women gather plants — researchers expected to find that the Hadza expended way more energy than we do.

Except, that's not at all what they found.

As expected, the Hadza have lower body fat levels than Westerners and they did have greater levels of physical activity. Their average daily energy expenditure, though, didn't differ from Westerners', even when body size was controlled.

In other words, the Hadza are more active than most of us but don't burn more calories. That "counter-intuitive" result, Pontzer et al., write, challenges "current models of obesity suggesting that Western lifestyles lead to decreased energy expenditure." The researchers hypothesize that there's a sort of ingrained human set-point for energy expenditure, impervious to cultural variation.

In a piece for The New York Times, Pontzer speculates that the Hadza's bodies compensate for high energy output in foraging by conserving energy on other physiological tasks.

Of course, this study focuses on a single group of hunter-gatherers: 13 Hadza men and 17 women whose energy levels were measured over 30 days. The tired phrase "more research is needed" fits well here.

Pretty obviously, the take-home message of the Hadza study is not that physical activity isn't beneficial. Massive amounts of data show the positive effects of exercise on cognitive and physical well-being.

So what are the take-home messages? I'll mention two.

In the Times, Pontzer flatly concludes that the obesity epidemic is not about being sedentary but about diet. In my words, it's about those alluring, blissful foods the food industry encourages us to eat. I know that's a sweeping generalization, one that deserves testing by way of more research into diet, exercise, and health.

The Hadza data also points, yet again, to the poor reasoning that underlies attempts by some "paleo" advocates to emulate a hunter-gatherer lifestyle. The surprising study results remind us that, when tested, our expectations about hunter-gatherer physiology and health may yield data quite divergent from our assumptions.

Data from anthropology do indicate that there has always been enormous variety in hunter-gatherer diet, foraging and health; any notion of the hunter-gatherer model is an illusion. I took flak from some quarters for saying so here at 13.7 in 2011. But a great post this month by Ferris Jabr at Scientific American brings the case home in an informed and engaging way.

"The Paleo diet," Jabr writes, "is founded more on privilege than on logic."


Barbara's new book is How Animals Grieve. You can up with what she is thinking on Twitter.

Copyright 2013 NPR. To see more, visit http://www.npr.org/.