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In Times Of Drought, Movies Show Tenacity Of Life

Aug 9, 2012
Originally published on August 10, 2012 11:02 am

The nationwide drought that has withered crops in more than 30 states shows no sign of letting up. But as Katharine Hepburn established in her film, The Rainmaker, that doesn't mean hope has to dry up.

"I dreamed we had a rain, a great big rain," she tells her brothers, only to be told that "a drought's a drought, and a dream's a dream."

That's Hollywood's "Dream Factory" for you, shooting holes in its own illusions. The film industry has made plenty of movies about drought through the years, and intriguingly, what those films have used drought to symbolize has changed with the times.

In Rainmaker, for instance, Hepburn was playing a sharp-tongued spinster, who wanted no part of a fast-talking Burt Lancaster when he drifted into town swearing he could conjure moisture from a sky that hadn't seen a cloud in months.

"I read about a rainmaker," she tells him. "Can't remember whether they locked him up or ran him out of town."

The movie was set in the Depression, but was made in the 1950s, a time when post-war Americans were convinced all obstacles could be overcome, evidently including the suspicions of a middle-aged — and metaphorically dried-up — spinster. So when Hepburn finally loosened up, moviegoers knew the sky would soon open up.

Now, even at the time, this was kind of silly. Movies from the previous two decades, being closer to the disastrous droughts of the 1930s, had treated dry spells far more seriously. King Vidor's political allegory Our Daily Bread, about farmers who worked together on a collective when their crops were suddenly without water, was released in 1934 during the most catastrophic drought in American history. And a few years later came The Grapes of Wrath, John Ford's film version of John Steinbeck's wrenching portrait of a generation uprooted when the Great Plains turned into a dust bowl.

This was drought for an audience that had just lived through one. But as that experience faded into memory, Hollywood felt freer to improvise. That love story in The Rainmaker was one direction it took. Another was science fiction: Whole worlds dried up in Frank Herbert's Dune, and The Man Who Fell to Earth, fell to earth, remember, to find water for his dying planet.

There was also the Western, in which man's frontier conquests were often sidetracked on dusty trails where Mother Nature proved as deadly as any bullet.

More recently, Mel Gibson gave us Apocalypto, a historical allegory in which the Mayan civilization combats drought with human sacrifice. And last year, an animated lizard by the name of Rango tackled a very contemporary environmental disaster. The varmints in the town of Dirt were afflicted by a drought caused not by nature but by corporate and political greed.

Different as these storylines are, they share a common thread — one that audiences can identify with, whether they have suffered the deprivations of hot, dry weather themselves, or have only ever thirsted on the way to the refreshment stand. That common thread is resilience.

In real life, drought is the absence of water. On screen, it stands in for other absences — love, strength, political will, family support — the essentials that help us cope when our environment is unforgiving. And what drought films, from Rango to The Grapes of Wrath, inevitably show, in that lonely figure trudging down a dusty highway, or that tuft of grass, defiant in a barren landscape, is the tenacity — the simple stubbornness — of life.

Copyright 2013 NPR. To see more, visit http://www.npr.org/.

Transcript

MELISSA BLOCK, HOST:

The drought may mean higher food prices, and withered crops and lawns. At the movies, drought can be a metaphor for much more. Here's Katharine Hepburn, in "The Rainmaker."

(SOUNDBITE OF MOVIE, "THE RAINMAKER)

KATHARINE HEPBURN: (as Lizzie Curry) I dreamed we had a rain, a great big rain.

UNIDENTIFIED ACTOR #1: (as character) Did you, Lizzie?

HEPBURN: (as Lizzie Curry) The lightning flashed, and the thunder rolled up and down the canyon. Whoo, it was wonderful.

LLOYD BRIDGES: (as Noah Curry) Drought's drought, and a dream's a dream.

HEPBURN: (as Lizzie Curry) It was a nice dream, Noah.

BLOCK: Hollywood's dream factory has long used drought as a symbol. But how it does that has changed with the times, according to our critic Bob Mondello.

BOB MONDELLO, BYLINE: When a fast-talking Burt Lancaster swore in "The Rainmaker" that he could conjure moisture from a sky that hasn't seen a cloud in months, sharp-tongued Katharine Hepburn wanted no part of him.

(SOUNDBITE OF MOVIE, "THE RAINMAKER)

HEPBURN: (as Lizzie Curry) I read about a rainmaker. I think it was Idaho.

BURT LANCASTER: (as Bill Starbuck) What did you read, lady?

HEPBURN: (as Lizzie Curry) I can't remember whether they locked him up, or ran him out of town.

LANCASTER: (as Bill Starbuck) Might be they strung him up on a sycamore tree.

HEPBURN: (as Lizzie Curry) Might be.

MONDELLO: The movie was set in the Depression but was made in the 1950s, a time when post-war Americans were convinced all obstacles could be overcome - evidently, including the suspicions of a middle-aged and metaphorically dried-up spinster. So when Hepburn finally loosened up...

(SOUNDBITE OF MOVIE, "THE RAINMAKER")

UNIDENTIFIED ACTOR #2: (as character) Got your hair down.

UNIDENTIFIED MAN #3: (as character) Yeah, she sure has changed.

MONDELLO: Moviegoers knew the sky would soon open up.

(SOUNDBITE OF MOVIE, "THE RAINMAKER")

(SOUNDBITE OF THUNDER)

UNIDENTIFIED ACTOR #4: (as character) Jimmy, for Pete's sake, stop beating that drum.

EARL HOLLIMAN: (as Jim Curry) I ain't beating no drum.

(SOUNDBITE OF THUNDER)

UNIDENTIFIED ACTOR #5: It's raining.

HEPBURN: (as Lizzie Curry) Yes, it is. Rain!

UNIDENTIFIED ACTOR #5: (as character) Rain!

MONDELLO: Now this, even at the time, was kind of silly. Movies from the previous two decades, being closer to the disastrous droughts of the 1930, had treated dry spells far more seriously.

(SOUNDBITE OF MOVIE, "OUR DAILY BREAD")

UNIDENTIFIED ACTOR #6: (as character) That corn is dying. I don't know what we're going to do.

MONDELLO: King Vidor's political allegory "Our Daily Bread" was released in 1934, during the most catastrophic drought in American history. And a few years later came "The Grapes of Wrath," John Ford's wrenching portrait of a generation uprooted when the Great Plains turned into a dust bowl.

(SOUNDBITE OF MOVIE, "THE GRAPES OF WRATH")

JOHN QUALEN: (as Muley) The dusters - blowing like this, year after year. Blowing the land away; blowing the crops away. Blowing us away now.

MONDELLO: This was drought for an audience that had just lived through one. But as that experience faded into memory, Hollywood felt freer to improvise. That love story in "The Rainmaker" was one direction it took. Another was science fiction. Whole worlds dried up in "Dune," say; or "The Man Who Fell to Earth" - he fell to Earth, to find water for his dying planet. There was also the western in which man's frontier conquests were often sidetracked on dusty trails, where Mother Nature proved as deadly as any bullet.

(SOUNDBITE OF MOVIE, "THE GOOD, THE BAD AND THE UGLY")

UNIDENTIFIED ACTOR #7: (as character) Don't move. I'll be right back. I'll get the water. Don't die like that pig. And Blondie, here's water. Water, Blondie?

MONDELLO: More recently, Mel Gibson gave us "Apocalypto," a historical allegory in which the Mayan civilization combats drought with human sacrifice. And last year, an animated lizard by the name of Rango, tackled a very contemporary environmental disaster. This drought is caused not by nature, but by corporate and political greed.

(SOUNDBITE OF MOVIE, "RANGO")

ISLA FISHER: (as Beans) Someone is dumping water in the desert. I seen it with my own eyes!

STEPHEN ROOT: (as Merrimack) (LAUGHTER) Water, in the desert! Was this during one of your special times?

FISHER: (as Beans) No.

MONDELLO: Different as these storylines are, they share a common thread, one that audiences can identify with whether they've suffered the deprivations of hot, dry weather themselves; or only ever thirsted on the way to the refreshment stand. That common thread is resilience.

In real life, drought is the absence of water. On screen, it stands in for other absences - love, strength, political will, family support - the essentials that help us cope when our environment is unforgiving. And what drought films - from "Rango" to "The Grapes of Wrath" - inevitably show, in that lonely figure trudging down a dusty highway, or that tuft of grass, defiant in a barren landscape; is the tenacity, the simple stubbornness of life.

(SOUNDBITE OF MOVIE, "THE GRAPES OF WRATH")

RUSSELL SIMPSON: (as Pa) We sure taken a beating.

JANE DARWELL: (as Ma) I know. (LAUGHTER) That's what makes us tough.

MONDELLO: I'm Bob Mondello.

(SOUNDBITE OF MOVIE, "THE GRAPES OF WRATH")

DARWELL: (as Ma) Rich fellas come up, they die; and their kids ain't no good, and they die out. But we keep a-coming. We're the people that live. They can't wipe us out; they can't lick us. We'll go on forever, Pa, 'cause we're the people. Transcript provided by NPR, Copyright NPR.