NPR Politics presents the Lunchbox List: our favorite campaign news and stories curated from NPR and around the Web in digestible bites (100 words or less!). Look for it every weekday afternoon from now until the conventions.

Convention Countdown

The Republican National Convention is in 4 days in Cleveland.

The Democratic National Convention is in 11 days in Philadelphia.

NASA has released the first picture of Jupiter taken since the Juno spacecraft went into orbit around the planet on July 4.

The picture was taken on July 10. Juno was 2.7 million miles from Jupiter at the time. The color image shows some of the atmospheric features of the planet, including the giant red spot. You can also see three of Jupiter's moons in the picture: Io, Europa and Ganymede.

The Senate is set to approve a bill intended to change the way police and health care workers treat people struggling with opioid addictions.

My husband and I once took great pleasure in preparing meals from scratch. We made pizza dough and sauce. We baked bread. We churned ice cream.

Then we became parents.

Now there are some weeks when pre-chopped veggies and a rotisserie chicken are the only things between us and five nights of Chipotle.

Parents are busy. For some of us, figuring out how to get dinner on the table is a daily struggle. So I reached out to food experts, parents and nutritionists for help. Here is some of their (and my) best advice for making weeknight meals happen.

"O Canada," the national anthem of our neighbors up north, comes in two official versions — English and French. They share a melody, but differ in meaning.

Let the record show: neither version of those lyrics contains the phrase "all lives matter."

But at the 2016 All-Star Game, the song got an unexpected edit.

At Petco Park in San Diego, one member of the Canadian singing group The Tenors — by himself, according to the other members of the group — revised the anthem.

School's out, and a lot of parents are getting through the long summer days with extra helpings of digital devices.

How should we feel about that?

Police in Baton Rouge say they have arrested three people who stole guns with the goal of killing police officers. They are still looking for a fourth suspect in the alleged plot, NPR's Greg Allen reports.

"Police say the thefts were at a Baton Rouge pawn shop early Saturday morning," Greg says. "One person was arrested at the scene. Since then, two others have been arrested and six of the eight stolen handguns have been recovered. Police are still looking for one other man."

A 13-year-old boy is among those arrested, Greg says.

Copyright 2016 NPR. To see more, visit http://www.npr.org/.

After an international tribunal invalidated Beijing's claims to the South China Sea, Chinese authorities have declared in no uncertain terms that they will be ignoring the ruling.

The Philippines brought the case to the Permanent Court of Arbitration in The Hague, objecting to China's claims to maritime rights in the disputed waters. The tribunal agreed that China had no legal authority to claim the waters and was infringing on the sovereign rights of the Philippines.

Donald Trump is firing back at Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg after she disparaged him in several media interviews. He tweeted late Tuesday that she "has embarrassed all" with her "very dumb political statements" about the candidate. Trump ended his tweet with "Her mind is shot - resign!":

Pages

'Test And Treat' Strategy For Curbing HIV Draws Questions

Sep 6, 2012

San Francisco is trying a new tactic to fight AIDS. Health workers are aggressively testing people for HIV and then immediately putting those who test positive on potent antiretroviral drugs.

Known as "test and treat," the approach relies on the fact that taking HIV drugs dramatically reduces a person's risk of transmitting the virus to others. As more and more people are put on medication, the epidemic theoretically should fizzle out.

Test and treat sounds good on paper, but some doctors and policymakers have doubts about its feasibility on a large scale.

An analysis just published in the journal PLOSOne questions whether test and treat is the best strategy in developing countries, such as South Africa, where getting drugs to many people is difficult and the rise of drug resistance is a potential problem.

The results bolster support for the current HIV guidelines set by the World Health Organization, which recommend giving antiretroviral medicines to people whose immune systems are already compromised by the virus.

In 2009, scientists at the WHO developed a mathematical model to look at how test and treat could alter the course of the HIV epidemic in South Africa. The model made a provocative prediction. If all 50 million South Africans could be screened for HIV and the estimated 6 million who are infected given antiretroviral drugs, the number of new HIV cases each year would plummet. The virus would be on its way to elimination.

Mathematical biologist Sally Blower, who co-authored the current study, says this model is too simplistic. It didn't take into account the potential need for expensive, second-line drugs if resistant HIV strains emerge, and it underestimates how long people really stay on the medicines.

When she adds these factors to the model, it predicts that test and treat will take 30 years longer and cost significantly more than originally thought. Plus, focusing treatment on only those who are sick appears cheaper in the long run — and almost as effective at stopping the epidemic in South Africa — as giving drugs to everyone infected.

"Getting 5 million more people treatment, that's kind of a fantasyland," Blower tells Shots. And, she says, it would be tough to sustain. "When you put people on medication, you need to have the resources to keep them on it," she says. Otherwise, resistance can emerge, and it becomes an ethical issue.

Epidemiologist Brian Williams, who helped develop the original WHO model, agrees that sustainability and commitment are key issues. "The worst possibility is to promise people the drugs and then have to take them away," Williams tells Shots.

But he doesn't think this is a reason to dismiss test and treat. "Eventually everybody [who is infected] is going to need the drugs. Why not start their treatment right away," he says. "When you get cancer, you don't wait until it metastasizes to get drugs."

Williams, who now works at South African Centre for Epidemiological Modelling and Analysis, also says it isn't clear whether drugs resistance will be a problem under test and treat. "Experimental evidence suggests that antiretroviral treatment causes drug resistance to go down."

Such questions can't be answered with theoretical models. Treatment strategies need to be evaluated experimentally with small projects, such as the one in San Francisco.

"Each year we are gaining experience and data from countries where treatment scale-up is progressing," Dr. Andrew Ball, a physician at WHO's HIV/AIDS Department, told Shots in an email.

WHO is using the results from these projects and many modeling experiments, to develop new guidelines for antiretroviral drugs. It plans to publish these guidelines in 2013.

In the end, Ball says, eliminating HIV will probably require many strategies in combination with more access to antiretroviral drugs, including more needle exchange programs, condoms and circumcision.

"The issues raised by the new paper are quite valid, and we need to look at them," Ball says. "But the most important information comes from the hard research."

Copyright 2013 NPR. To see more, visit http://www.npr.org/.