A police officer is free on bond after being arrested following a rash of road-sign thefts in southeast Alabama.  Brantley Police Chief Titus Averett says officer Jeremy Ray Walker of Glenwood is on paid leave following his arrest in Pike County.  The 30-year-old Walker is charged with receiving stolen property.  Lt. Troy Johnson of the Pike County Sheriff's Office says an investigation began after someone reported that Walker was selling road signs from Crenshaw County.  Investigators contacted the county engineer and learned signs had been reported stolen from several roads.

NPR Politics presents the Lunchbox List: our favorite campaign news and stories curated from NPR and around the Web in digestible bites (100 words or less!). Look for it every weekday afternoon from now until the conventions.

Convention Countdown

The Republican National Convention is in 4 days in Cleveland.

The Democratic National Convention is in 11 days in Philadelphia.

NASA has released the first picture of Jupiter taken since the Juno spacecraft went into orbit around the planet on July 4.

The picture was taken on July 10. Juno was 2.7 million miles from Jupiter at the time. The color image shows some of the atmospheric features of the planet, including the giant red spot. You can also see three of Jupiter's moons in the picture: Io, Europa and Ganymede.

The Senate is set to approve a bill intended to change the way police and health care workers treat people struggling with opioid addictions.

My husband and I once took great pleasure in preparing meals from scratch. We made pizza dough and sauce. We baked bread. We churned ice cream.

Then we became parents.

Now there are some weeks when pre-chopped veggies and a rotisserie chicken are the only things between us and five nights of Chipotle.

Parents are busy. For some of us, figuring out how to get dinner on the table is a daily struggle. So I reached out to food experts, parents and nutritionists for help. Here is some of their (and my) best advice for making weeknight meals happen.

"O Canada," the national anthem of our neighbors up north, comes in two official versions — English and French. They share a melody, but differ in meaning.

Let the record show: neither version of those lyrics contains the phrase "all lives matter."

But at the 2016 All-Star Game, the song got an unexpected edit.

At Petco Park in San Diego, one member of the Canadian singing group The Tenors — by himself, according to the other members of the group — revised the anthem.

School's out, and a lot of parents are getting through the long summer days with extra helpings of digital devices.

How should we feel about that?

Police in Baton Rouge say they have arrested three people who stole guns with the goal of killing police officers. They are still looking for a fourth suspect in the alleged plot, NPR's Greg Allen reports.

"Police say the thefts were at a Baton Rouge pawn shop early Saturday morning," Greg says. "One person was arrested at the scene. Since then, two others have been arrested and six of the eight stolen handguns have been recovered. Police are still looking for one other man."

A 13-year-old boy is among those arrested, Greg says.

Copyright 2016 NPR. To see more, visit http://www.npr.org/.

After an international tribunal invalidated Beijing's claims to the South China Sea, Chinese authorities have declared in no uncertain terms that they will be ignoring the ruling.

The Philippines brought the case to the Permanent Court of Arbitration in The Hague, objecting to China's claims to maritime rights in the disputed waters. The tribunal agreed that China had no legal authority to claim the waters and was infringing on the sovereign rights of the Philippines.

Pages

From Stem Cells To Eggs (And Beyond)

Oct 5, 2012

Transcript

IRA FLATOW, HOST:

Up next, turning stem cell into mouse eggs. Scientists have been growing stem cells in the lab for nearly 15 years now. And in that time they've learned to transform stem cells into pretty much anything they wanted to - heart cells, liver cells, brain cells. But now a group of Japanese scientists has raised the bar by transforming mouse stem cells into mouse eggs. And not only do they look like eggs but they can be fertilized and developed into healthy mice.

Their research appears in the journal Science this week. How do they do it? Could the same thing work in humans? Just take a tiny piece of a woman's skin, turn it into fresh egg cells. Would it be ethical to do so? Joining me now to talk about these issues is Sean Morrison, director of the Children's Research Institute at University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas. Welcome back to SCIENCE FRIDAY, Dr. Morrison.

SEAN MORRISON: Hey, Ira. Nice to talk to you again.

FLATOW: So give us a little thumbnail sketch of what happened. Scientists made egg cells from stem cells. How did they do that?

MORRISON: Well, they used either mouse embryonic stem cells or, as you know, it's also possible now to reprogram adult cells to have properties similar to embryonic cells - embryonic stem cells. Those are called induced pluripotent stem cells or IPS cells. They could use either of those kinds of pluripotent stems cells - pluripotent meaning they can make any cell type in the body. And they were able to generate mouse eggs or oocytes from the pluripotent stem cells. And, you know, what's particularly important about the paper, as you said, is that they confirmed that these were really functional eggs by using them in in vitro fertilization to make healthy adult mice.

FLATOW: And the mice themselves had offspring also?

MORRISON: Yes.

FLATOW: And those were healthy mice also?

MORRISON: As far as they know.

FLATOW: You know, this opens up all kinds of questions...

MORRISON: Yes.

FLATOW: ...about where do you move forward with something like this, because...

MORRISON: Well, there's two kinds of important implications. One is that this creates a system in which it's now really possible to study the differentiation of oocytes and the process by which they're formed. But secondly, if it's possible to do this with human pluripotent stem cells and if it's possible to identify an ethical path forward to really study the properties of those cells, it could really have important implications for how in vitro fertilization is done.

You could imagine for women who either can't make eggs or who can't make genetically healthy eggs that it could become possible to, as you said, take a small sample of normal cells, like from their skin, to derive induced pluripotent stem cells from those skin cells and then to use those cells to derive eggs that could be used during in vitro fertilization. Now, it's important to note that nobody has done this yet with human cells, and it's not clear whether it will be possible. But this paper that was published yesterday raises that possibility. And if it were possible, there are patients that - who could undergo more effective fertility treatment as a consequence.

The other issue, of course, is that the key experiment in the science paper was showing that the egg cells were functional by showing that they could be fertilized and they could be used to generate healthy mice. There would have to be a lot of thought given to how that could be tested with human cells because of course you don't want to fertilize human eggs as part of a research project in a laboratory.

You would only want to do that in the context of fertility treatment, and you would only want to do that if you had a pretty good reason to believe that the eggs had a chance of giving rise to healthy pregnancies.

FLATOW: That is a can of worms.

MORRISON: Yes.

FLATOW: Talking with Sean Morrison on SCIENCE FRIDAY from NPR. I'm Ira Flatow. Can you walk us through, how do you actually tell the stem cells, hey, turn into eggs now?

MORRISON: Well, they had a pretty complicated process that was described in their paper that involved, first, exposing the stem cells to certain signals in laboratory dishes, and then they mix the stem cells with cells from the mouse ovary so that the cells could be exposed to chemical signals that would normally be present in the ovary.

Then they took that mixture of cells and actually transplanted it back under - into the ovaries of mice, you know, inside their body, and then waited for the eggs to mature and then re-isolated the eggs and did in vitro fertilization with mouse sperm and then re-implanted the embryos into mice. And they were able to deliver successful pregnancies.

FLATOW: Could you apply the same the method to make sperm cells? If you're making egg cells, what about sperm cell?

MORRISON: Well, in fact, the same laboratory has already done this, shown that they could generate mouse sperm that was effective and functionally normal. And there are early indications that it's possible to take human pluripotent stem cells and generate cells that look a lot like sperm, although, you know, it hasn't been possible to do the key experiment to test whether or not the sperm-like cells that are derived from human pluripotent stem cells, whether they could, you know, really successfully fertilize an egg.

FLATOW: Would it be ethical to do this, you know, some of this work in humans? Would it take away some of the stigma about using embryonic stem cells?

MORRISON: Well, there's a whole lot of issues to consider in that I think a lot of people are going to have to involved in working through and thinking about under what circumstances it would be permissible to use this kind of approach in humans if the science really supports the idea that this kind of approach could generate cells that look like eggs from human pluripotent stem cells. I think the two key factors, I mean one key factor is that you would want to do this in the context of an effort, you know, for in vitro fertilization, in the course of reproduction rather than just generating embryos for the sake of research by fertilization.

And secondly, you would only want to go forward, I think, if you were sure enough from the preliminary studies that the eggs really looked healthy and normal and really felt like they had a chance of giving rise to successful pregnancies because you wouldn't want to engage in in vitro fertilization with a patient if there really wasn't much chance of having a successful pregnancy.

FLATOW: Is there any reason - going the opposite direction of thought, is there any reason to believe this would not work in humans?

MORRISON: You know, there have been so many twists and turns in the plot of pluripotent stem cell biology over the past 10 years that I wouldn't bet against anything, and I also don't think we should be in the business of making sure predictions about exactly what's going to happen. It's possible that what's described in this paper won't work on human cells. But it wouldn't be surprising if it did.

FLATOW: All right. We're going to leave it right there. And thank you very much for taking time to be with us today. Some interesting food for thought this Friday. Thanks a lot.

MORRISON: All right. Nice talking to you, Ira.

FLATOW: Sean Morrison, director of the Children's Research Institute at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas. That's about all the time we have today. A quick reminder - a couple of quick reminders. Go to our website at sciencefriday.com. We have our video pick of the week up there, and there are some battling beetles that I'm sure you're going to want to watch as they battle all about - well, size means everything on these beetles. You're going to want to see that up on our website at sciencefriday.com.

Also, the SCIENCE FRIDAY Book Club, we're meeting again on October 26. Our next book is "Surely You're Joking, Mr. Feynman!" by Richard Feynman. We just mentioned him and talked about what a great writer he was and how thoughtful he was. You can get your copy and start reading it and then join our conversation a few weeks from now on our book club date. That's going to be October 26. Transcript provided by NPR, Copyright NPR.