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The Senate is set to approve a bill intended to change the way police and health care workers treat people struggling with opioid addictions.

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After an international tribunal invalidated Beijing's claims to the South China Sea, Chinese authorities have declared in no uncertain terms that they will be ignoring the ruling.

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In Southwest, Worst-Case Fire Scenario Plays Out

Aug 24, 2012
Originally published on August 24, 2012 7:48 pm

Third of a five-part series

As the Earth's average temperature creeps upward, climate scientists have predicted record heat waves and droughts. That's what we've seen this summer in the U.S.

The question has become, are we now seeing the real damage climate change can do?

I drove though New Mexico's Santa Fe National Forest with ecologist Craig Allen, from the U.S. Geological Survey. Allen is energetic, restless and deeply worried about this forest. He has watched a triple combination of heat, drought and wildfire devastate this place over the past 15 years.

We stop by what once would've been a beautiful meadow full of Ponderosa pine — a tall tree with cinnamon bark and branches at the top, loaded with pine needles. But the big valley is badly burned. There are no live Ponderosa pines.

"The shrubs have basically taken control of the site," Allen says.

Ecologists call this "type conversion." The forest turned to shrub land. Big wildfires did that.

Heat waves, droughts and fire are not unusual here: A 16th-century mega-drought pushed the Pueblo Indians out of these mountains. And the current drought, in fact, is only the eighth most severe in the past 1,000 years.

But scientists say something is different now. The weather pendulum that swings back and forth between hot and cold, wet and dry is swinging more toward the hot and dry side.

"What we have now is a gradual trend towards warmer temperatures," says Park Williams, an ecologist at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico. He says climate change is exaggerating the normal swings in weather.

"So each drought will be a little more intense, and each very good period will be a little less good for the foreseeable human future, it seems," he says.

Drought And The 'Sponge Effect'

Higher temperatures will mean more drought.

It works this way: Prolonged heat turns the atmosphere into a sort of dry sponge — a sponge that sucks more and more moisture out of the ground and out of trees. Scientists call this "sponge effect" the atmosphere's "vapor pressure deficit." Williams says this year, that deficit has increased here by 50 percent.

"Thinking about a 50 percent increase in vapor pressure deficit is like thinking about the Southwestern United States being transplanted onto another planet," he says.

Williams says that deficit will get worse as average summer temperatures increase.

Williams and Allen work within the Bandelier National Monument in the Jemez Mountains. It's a national park. It's rainy season now, and a small river runs through the woods.

But the rain is deceiving. Less rainfall and more heat are changing the landscape. Allen says the current drought almost wiped out one of the park's iconic trees, the pinon, 10 years ago. The pinon gives the Southwest its signature peppery scent.

"This is a huge change almost overnight in an ecosystem. The dominant tree on this site wholesale died," Allen says. "More than 95 percent of the mature pinon in Bandelier died."

This wave of heat, drought and fire has swept over the Colorado Plateau — a region of high mountain forests that stretch across Utah, New Mexico, Arizona and Colorado.

To make matters worse, the weakened trees are ever more vulnerable to bark beetles that now infest these forests.

Seeing 'The Worst Thing ... We Expected Would Happen'

Thomas Swetnam at the University of Arizona studies the forests of the Southwest. Like many ecologists, he says one reason forests are burning hotter now is because they're overgrown. For a century the U.S. Forest Service suppressed all fires, and now they're tinderboxes.

But Swetnam says climate change has made the situation much worse. And that's exactly what the computer models of climate change predicted.

"When you have predictions and the scientific understanding tells you this is likely what's coming, [and] then it starts to happen, the pieces, the dots are obviously connectable that it's very likely [we are] seeing the worst thing that we expected would happen," Swetnam says. "Warming is occurring and it's starting to take out our forests."

Back at Bandelier in New Mexico, Craig Allen's office sits deep in a canyon in the Jemez Mountains. He's watched four fires burn about 90 percent of the east side of the mountains in 16 years.

"For me, the really profound piece of this is the ability of the trees that have been growing for centuries on these hill slopes," he says. "Are they going to be able to survive even another 20, 30 years if the temperature increases?"

Inside, Allen's desk is surrounded with notebooks — 30 years of his field notes here. But now, he says, the forests they describe will probably never look the same.

Copyright 2013 NPR. To see more, visit http://www.npr.org/.

Transcript

STEVE INSKEEP, HOST:

We've also been following the wildfires that continue this summer across much of the West. Climate scientists are asking if those fires are more symptoms of damage from climate change, as NPR's Christopher Joyce reports.

CHRISTOPHER JOYCE, BYLINE: I'm driving through New Mexico's Santa Fe National Forest with ecologist Craig Allen from the U.S. Geological Survey. Allen's energetic, restless and deeply worried about this forest. He's watched a triple combination of heat, drought and wildfire devastate this place over the past 15 years. We stop by what once would've been a beautiful meadow full of Ponderosa pine, a tall tree with cinnamon bark and branches at the top, loaded with pine needles.

So what we're seeing here is a big valley, a meadow, burned.

CRAIG ALLEN: Yeah, no live Ponderosa pine. The shrubs have basically taken control of the site.

JOYCE: Ecologists call this type conversion, from forest to shrub-land. Big wildfires did that. Now, heat waves, droughts and fires are not unusual here. A 16th-century mega-drought pushed the Pueblo Indians out of these mountains. The current drought, in fact, is only the eighth-most severe in the past 1,000 years. But scientists say something is different now. The weather pendulum that swings back and forth between hot and cold, wet and dry is swinging more toward the hot and dry side.

PARK WILLIAMS: What we have now is a gradual trend towards warmer temperatures.

JOYCE: That's Park Williams, an ecologist at the Los Alamos National Laboratory here in New Mexico. He says climate change is exaggerating the normal swings in weather.

WILLIAMS: So each drought will be a little more intense, and each very good period will be a little less good.

JOYCE: Forever?

WILLIAMS: Yes, for the foreseeable human future, it seems.

JOYCE: Higher temperatures will mean more drought. It works this way: prolonged heat turns the atmosphere into a sort of dry sponge, a sponge that sucks more and more moisture out of the ground and out of trees. Scientists call this sponge effect the atmosphere's vapor pressure deficit. Williams says this year, that deficit has increased here by 50 percent.

WILLIAMS: Thinking about a 50 percent increase in vapor pressure deficit is like thinking about the Southwestern United States being transplanted onto another planet.

JOYCE: Williams says that deficit will only get worse as average summer temperatures increase.

(SOUNDBITE OF WATER RUNNING)

JOYCE: Williams and Allen work within the Bandelier National Monument in the Jemez Mountains. It's a national park. It's rainy season now. A small river runs through the woods. But the rain is deceiving. Less rainfall and more heat are changing the landscape. Allen says the current drought almost wiped out one of the park's iconic trees, the pinon, 10 years ago. It's the pinon gives southwest its signature peppery scent.

ALLEN: This is a huge change almost overnight in an eco-system, you know. The dominant tree on this site, wholesale, died. More than 95 percent of the mature pinon in Bandelier died.

JOYCE: This wave of heat, drought and fire has swept over the Colorado Plateau, a region of high mountain forests that stretch across Utah, New Mexico, Arizona and Colorado. To make matters worse, the weakened trees are evermore vulnerable to bark beetles that now infest these forests.

THOMAS SWETNAM: Thomas Swetnam at the University of Arizona studies the forests of the Southwest. Like many ecologists, he says one reason forests are burning hotter now is because they're overgrown. For a century, the U.S. Forest Service suppressed all fires, and now they're tinder boxes. But Swetnam says climate change has made the situation much worse. And that's exactly what the computer models of climate change predicted.

When you have predictions - and the scientific understanding tells you this is what's coming - and then it starts to happen. You know, the pieces, the dots are obviously connectable, that it's very likely seeing the worst thing that we expected would happen. Warming is occurring, and it's starting to take out our forests.

JOYCE: Back at Bandelier in New Mexico, Craig Allen's office sits deep in a canyon in the Jemez Mountains. He's watched four fires in the past 16 years burn about 90 percent of the eastern side of these mountains.

ALLEN: For me, the really profound piece of this is the ability of the trees that are - have been growing for centuries on these hill-slopes. Are they going to be able to survive even another 20, 30 years if the temperature increases?

JOYCE: Inside, Allen's desk is surrounded with notebooks, 30 years of his field notes here. But now he says the forests that they describe will probably never look the same.

Christopher Joyce, NPR News. Transcript provided by NPR, Copyright NPR.