When the United Kingdom voted to leave the European Union last month, the seaside town of Port Talbot in Wales eagerly went along with the move. Brexit was approved by some 57 percent of the town's residents.

Now some of them are wondering if they made the wrong decision.

The June 23 Brexit vote has raised questions about the fate of the troubled Port Talbot Works, Britain's largest surviving steel plant — a huge, steam-belching facility that has long been the town's biggest employer.

Solar Impulse 2 has landed in Cairo, completing the penultimate leg of its attempt to circumnavigate the globe using only the power of the sun.

The trip over the Mediterranean included a breathtaking flyover of the Pyramids. Check it out:

President Obama is challenging Americans to have an honest and open-hearted conversation about race and law enforcement. But even as he sits down at the White House with police and civil rights activists, Obama is mindful of the limits of that approach.

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The FBI says it is giving up on the D.B. Cooper investigation, 45 years after the mysterious hijacker parachuted into the night with $200,000 in a briefcase, becoming an instant folk figure.

"Following one of the longest and most exhaustive investigations in our history," the FBI's Ayn Dietrich-Williams said in a statement, "the FBI redirected resources allocated to the D.B. Cooper case in order to focus on other investigative priorities."

This is the first in a series of essays concerning our collective future. The goal is to bring forth some of the main issues humanity faces today, as we move forward to uncertain times. In an effort to be as thorough as possible, we will consider two kinds of threats: those due to natural disasters and those that are man-made. The idea is to expose some of the dangers and possible mechanisms that have been proposed to deal with these issues. My intention is not to offer a detailed analysis for each threat — but to invite reflection and, hopefully, action.

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A Short Fuse For Fusion As Ignition Misses Deadline

Nov 28, 2012
Originally published on November 29, 2012 3:07 am

The National Ignition Facility in Livermore, Calif., has been called a modern-day moonshot, a project of "revolutionary science," and "the mother of all boondoggles."

NIF, as it's called, is a $5 billion, taxpayer-funded superlaser project whose goal is to create nuclear fusion — basically a tiny star inside a laboratory. But so far, that hasn't happened.

At first glance, NIF sounds like something out of a comic book from the 1950s. But NIF director Ed Moses disagrees slightly, saying in 2008: "I think we're working on something far more far out, and far cooler than anything in science fiction or fantasy."

The idea behind NIF is to direct a laser the size of a football field — 192 lasers, actually — at one tiny capsule the size of a peppercorn filled with hydrogen. It would create degrees of heat and pressure never before achieved in a lab.

"We will raise the temperature of the target to a hundred million degrees," Moses said. "That's higher temperature and more pressure than exists at the center of our sun."

That's so hot that the hydrogen atoms would enter into a state of controlled nuclear fusion. This is not nuclear fission, where energy is generated by splitting atoms — that happens every day in nuclear power plants. It's the opposite — fusion — smashing them together.

And it's important to realize this concept, controlled nuclear fusion, is one of the most fabled dreams in science, something that has eluded generations of physicists.

So when NIF opened, there was a lot of excitement.

"I cannot wait for this to become a reality here," said California's then-Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger, who was at NIF's dedication in 2009. George Miller, then the head of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, where NIF is based, was there too. Everyone seemed to believe ignition — that moment the fusion chain reaction begins — was right around the corner.

"I think we will get ignition," Miller said. "I think we'll get ignition relatively shortly after we turn the facility on."

Now, fast forward 3 1/2 years.

"We just haven't gotten it to burn yet," Moses said last month. He has been doing a lot of these interviews lately, because Oct. 1 was a deadline, set by the agency that oversees NIF — the National Nuclear Security Administration — for the project to have achieved fusion. But they just can't get the conditions right.

And Moses doesn't put too much stock in deadlines.

"We never guaranteed anything on any date," he says. "And people have to sort of get used to that. That's what great science is."

Nevertheless, the project's top brass now has some explaining to do. This month, Energy Secretary Steven Chu is required to tell Congress why NIF hasn't met its goal, despite costing taxpayers more than $5 billion so far.

For Christopher Paine, director of the nuclear program at the Natural Resources Defense Council, it'll be a giant "I told you so" moment.

"This project has gone on a long time," he says. "Billions have been invested. But to what end?"

Why, in other words, are we doing this?

It turns out there are three answers to that question, which were highlighted by a promotional video from NIF in 2009.

Reason No. 1: Clean energy.

Nuclear fusion, like fission, creates energy. But it's much more powerful and can run on hydrogen, which leaves no radioactive waste.

This could mean virtually unlimited clean energy. It's a big reason scientists have been chasing the fusion dream for so long. But critics say even if NIF works, we'd still be decades away from plugging its technology into the grid.

Reason No. 2: Global security and weapons testing.

This, actually, is the primary intent of NIF, and it has to do with the fact that actual nuclear bomb tests are banned worldwide. With NIF, you could get around that, by testing nuclear reactions inside its tiny pellet.

Reason No. 3: To "advance our understanding of the universe."

This basic research piece is the goal NIF director Ed Moses is really emphasizing these days. He points to the search for a famous subatomic particle.

"You know the Higgs Boson was just discovered at the LHC in CERN, right?" At a cost, he notes, of $10 billion. "Was it late? Was it early? Was it on time?"

The answer, he says: Who cares? This is the stuff of Grand Challenge Science, and you can't put a timeline on it.

"It's not Grand Challenge Science if you know the answer before you start," he says, "and this is exactly that."

That's the case NIF's advocates will have to make to Congress this month, and it's worked so far. After all, NIF has something for everyone: Democrats like clean energy; Republicans like weapons security.

Copyright 2012 National Public Radio. To see more, visit http://www.npr.org/.

Transcript

ROBERT SIEGEL, HOST:

From NPR News, this is ALL THINGS CONSIDERED. I'm Robert Siegel.

MELISSA BLOCK, HOST:

And I'm Melissa Block.

It's been called a modern day Moon shot, a project of revolutionary science but also the mother of all boondoggles. It's the National Ignition Facility in Livermore, California. NIF is a $5 billion taxpayer-funded super laser project. Its goal, to create nuclear fusion.

But Amy Standen, of member station KQED, reports that so far it's an elusive goal.

(SOUNDBITE OF THEME MUSIC, SUPERMAN)

AMY STANDEN, BYLINE: At first glance, NIF sounds like something out of a comic book from the 1950s.

(SOUNDBITE OF TV SERIES, SUPERMAN)

UNIDENTIFIED MAN 1: Faster than a speeding bullet.

(SOUNDBITE OF BULLET)

UNIDENTIFIED MAN 1: More powerful than a locomotive.

(SOUNDBITE OF TRAIN)

(SOUNDBITE OF TV SERIES, SUPERMAN)

UNIDENTIFIED MAN 2: Look, up in the sky. It's a bird.

UNIDENTIFIED WOMAN: It's a plane.

UNIDENTIFIED MAN 2: It's Superman...

STANDEN: It's NIF, the world's most powerful laser.

(SOUNDBITE OF AN ALARM)

ED MOSES: I think we are working on something far more, far out, and far cooler than anything in science-fiction or fantasy.

STANDEN: That was Ed Moses, NIF's director, showing off back in 2008. And he's not exaggerating much.

(SOUNDBITE OF BANGING)

STANDEN: The idea behind this is to direct a laser the size of a football field - 192 lasers, actually - at one tiny capsule the size of a peppercorn filled with hydrogen. It would create degrees of heat and pressure never before achieved in the lab.

MOSES: We will raise the temperature of the target to a hundred million degrees. That's higher temperature and more pressure than exists at the center of our sun.

STANDEN: So hot that the hydrogen atoms would enter into a state of controlled nuclear fusion. This is not nuclear fission, where energy is generated by splitting atoms. That happens every day in nuclear power plants. It's the opposite, fusion - smashing them together. And it's important to realize that this concept, controlled nuclear fusion, is one of the most fabled dreams in science, something that's eluded generations of physicists.

So when NIF opened, there was a lot of excitement.

ARNOLD SCHWARZENEGGER: So I cannot wait for this to become a reality here.

STANDEN: California's then-Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger was at NIF's dedication in 2009. So was George Miller, then-head of Lawrence Livermore National Lab, where NIF is based. Everyone seemed to believe that ignition - that moment the fusion chain reaction begins - was right around the corner.

GEORGE MILLER: I think we will get ignition. I think we will get ignition relatively shortly after we turn the facility on.

STANDEN: Now, fast forward three and a half years.

MOSES: We just haven't got it to burn yet.

STANDEN: That's Ed Moses last month. He's been doing a lot of these interviews lately, because October 1st, 2012 was a deadline set by the agency that oversees NIF, the National Nuclear Security Administration, for the project to have achieved fusion. But they just can't get the conditions right.

Moses doesn't put too much stock in deadlines.

We never guaranteed anything on any date. And, you know, people, you know, have to sort of get used to that. That's what great science is.

Nevertheless, the project's top brass now has some explaining to do. This month, Energy Secretary Steven Chu is required to tell Congress why NIF hasn't met its goal, despite costing taxpayers over $5 billion, so far.

For Christopher Paine, with the Natural Resources Defense Council, this will be a giant I-Told-You-So moment.

CHRISTOPHER PAINE: This project has gone on a long time. Billions have been invested, but to what end?

STANDEN: Why, in other words, are we doing this? Turns out, there are three answers to that question. This is a NIF promotional video from 2009.

(SOUNDBITE OF VIDEO)

UNIDENTIFIED MAN 3: NIF will explore controlled nuclear fusion to ensure global security, enable sustainable clean energy, and advance our understanding of the universe.

STANDEN: Now, let's break that down. Reason number one: clean energy; first, a very brief physics lesson. Nuclear fusion, like fission, creates energy. But it's much more powerful and it can run on hydrogen, which leaves no radioactive waste. That could mean virtually unlimited clean energy. This is a big reason scientists have been chasing this fusion dream for so long.

But critics say even if NIF works, we'd still be decades away from plugging its technology into the grid.

Reason number two: global security and weapons testing. This actually is the primary intent of NIF and it has to do with the fact that actual nuclear bomb tests are banned worldwide. With NIF, you could get around that by testing nuclear reactions inside its tiny pellet.

But it's the third reason to...

(SOUNDBITE OF A PROMOTIONAL VIDEO)

UNIDENTIFIED MAN 3: ...advance our understanding of the universe...

STANDEN: The basic research piece, that's the goal NIF director Ed Moses is really emphasizing these days. He points to the search for a famous subatomic particle.

MOSES: You know the Higgs boson was just discovered at the LHC in CERN, right?

STANDEN: At a cost, he notes, of $10 billion.

MOSES: Was it late? Was it early? Was it on time?

STANDEN: The answer, he says, who cares? This is the stuff of grand challenge science. You can't put a timeline on it.

MOSES: It's not grand challenge science if you know the answer before you start. And this is exactly that.

STANDEN: That's the case NIF's advocates will have to make to Congress this month. And it's worked so far. After all, NIF has something for everyone: Democrats like clean energy, Republicans like weapons security. But everyone likes a breakthrough. And at NIF, that is still out of reach.

For NPR News, I'm Amy Standen in San Francisco. Transcript provided by NPR, Copyright National Public Radio.