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After an international tribunal invalidated Beijing's claims to the South China Sea, Chinese authorities have declared in no uncertain terms that they will be ignoring the ruling.

The Philippines brought the case to arbitration at the Hague, objecting to China's claims to maritime rights in the disputed waters. The tribunal agreed that China had no legal authority to claim the waters, and was infringing on the sovereign rights of the Philippines.

Donald Trump is firing back at Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg after she made disparaging comments about him in several media interviews. He tweeted late Tuesday that she "has embarrassed all" with her "very dumb" comments about the candidate. Trump ended his tweet with "Her mind is shot - resign!":

Donald Trump wrapped up his public tryout of potential vice presidential candidates in Indiana Tuesday night with Gov. Mike Pence giving the final audition.

The Indiana governor's stock as Trump's possible running mate is believed to be on the rise, with New Jersey Gov. Chris Christie and former House Speaker Newt Gingrich also atop the list. Sources tell NPR the presumptive GOP presidential nominee is close to making a decision, which he's widely expected to announce by Friday.

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The unassuming hero of Jonas Karlsson's clever, Kafkaesque parable is the opposite of a malcontent. Despite scant education, a limited social life, and no prospects for success as it is usually defined, he's that rarity, a most happy fella with an amazing ability to content himself with very little. But one day, returning to his barebones flat from his dead-end, part-time job at a video store, he finds an astronomical bill from an entity called W.R.D. He assumes it's a scam. Actually, it is more sinister-- and it forces him to take a good hard look at his life and values.

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Donald Trump picked a military town — Virginia Beach, Va. — to give a speech Monday on how he would go about overhauling the Department of Veterans Affairs if elected.

He blamed the Obama administration for a string of scandals at the VA during the past two years, and claimed that his rival, Hillary Clinton, has downplayed the problems and won't fix them.

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The season for blueberries used to be short. You'd find fresh berries in the store just during a couple of months in the middle of summer.

Now, though, it's always blueberry season somewhere. Blueberry production is booming. The berries are grown in Florida, North Carolina, New Jersey, Michigan and the Pacific Northwest — not to mention the southern hemisphere.

But in any one location, the season is still short. And this means that workers follow the blueberry harvest, never staying in one place for long.

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To Slow Climate Change, Cut Down On Soot, Ozone

Jan 12, 2012
Originally published on January 12, 2012 10:12 pm

Politically, climate change is off this year's campaign agenda. Jobs, the economy and social issues are front and center.

But scientists are working as hard as ever to figure out how much the Earth is warming and what to do about it. Some now say it's time for a new strategy, one that gets faster results.

Talk to Durwood Zaelke, for example. Zaelke is a grizzled veteran of the climate wars: He was in Kyoto in 1997 when the world's nations drafted a treaty promising to curb warming, and he has watched that promise fizzle while the planet's temperature continues to rise.

Zaelke says the Kyoto treaty focused too much on the main greenhouse gas: carbon dioxide.

"I mean, it's like picking a fight with the biggest bully in the schoolyard," he says with a note of lament. "You know, you get your lunch money stolen, you get your pants pulled down, and you get sent home humiliated. We've made about that much progress with CO2."

Most CO2 comes from big power plants and factories — the engines of economic development. Few governments have been willing to endanger development with limits on CO2.

Zaelke, who runs the Institute for Governance and Sustainable Development in Washington, D.C., says it's time to look for other climate solutions. "You can't expect one treaty system to address every cause of climate change," he says. "It's too complex of a problem."

A growing number of scientists agree. They're focusing less on CO2 and more on other things that warm the planet, especially ozone and black carbon. Black carbon is mostly soot from burning wood, charcoal and dung.

Climate scientist Drew Shindell with NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies at Columbia University says ozone and soot live in the air for only a few months or years before they degrade or fall to Earth. If you slow or stop producing them, pretty soon the atmosphere will be fairly soot and ozone-free.

"So these things really have an immediate and quite powerful, in many cases, effect on climate both at global and regional scales," he says.

Carbon dioxide, on the other hand, stays in the atmosphere for much longer. So curbing CO2 from smokestacks won't show benefits for many decades, or even longer.

Shindell says cutting ozone and soot could slow warming by half a degree Celsius by 2050.

"By averting a half a degree of projected warming, that's really a substantial portion of whether the planet really goes over 2 degrees or stays below that," he says.

Two degrees warmer is when most climate scientists say bad things start happening to the planet.

It wouldn't be cheap; it could cost an average of $250 to cut a ton of pollutant. But Shindell says there are economic reasons for cutting ozone and soot that make it doable.

For example, ozone is created when methane gets into the atmosphere. Methane is essentially natural gas; it escapes from coal mines, livestock waste ponds and pipelines. It's valuable and capturing it saves money. Also, ozone damages commercial crops and causes smog. As for soot, it causes respiratory disease and millions of premature deaths.

Says Shindell: "If you factor in the air quality benefits and their large effects on health, then you find the reductions are really giving you benefits." He says those benefits, on a cost-per-ton-of-pollutant removed, outweigh the costs.

Shindell bases his calculations on wide-ranging assumptions about global health and economic gains, as well as what it would all cost. Some are especially hard to nail down — how crops might respond to less ozone, for example, depends on lots of local conditions. The dollar value for costs and benefits vary widely and are likely to be questioned.

But the study confirms others that say ozone and soot should be added to CO2 on the climate hit list.

And Zaelke says that unlike carbon dioxide, the tools to reduce them are familiar. "We have laws and we have institutions in most countries that already know something about controlling this," he says. "We already know the technology. We already know how to do it."

And it wouldn't take an international treaty to do it, either.

Shindell's research appears in the journal Science

.

Copyright 2013 NPR. To see more, visit http://www.npr.org/.

Transcript

MELISSA BLOCK, HOST:

One topic that's getting scant attention this election season is climate change. Instead, the economy and social issues are front and center, but scientists are working as hard as ever to figure out how much the earth is warming and what to do about it. Some now say it's time for a new strategy. As NPR's Christopher Joyce reports, a strategy that gets faster results.

CHRISTOPHER JOYCE, BYLINE: Durwood Zaelke is a grizzled veteran of the climate wars. He was in Kyoto in 1997 when the world's nations drafted a treaty promising to curb warming, and he's watched that promise fizzle while the planet's temperature continues to rise. Zaelke says the Kyoto treaty focused too much on the main greenhouse gas: carbon dioxide.

DR. DURWOOD ZAELKE: I mean, that's like picking a fight with the biggest bully in the schoolyard. You get your lunch money stolen. You get your pants pulled down, and you get sent home humiliated. We've made about that much progress with CO2.

JOYCE: Most CO2 comes from big power plants and factories, the engines of economic development. Few governments have been willing to endanger development with limits on CO2.

Zaelke runs the Institute for Governance and Sustainable Development in Washington, D.C. He says it's time to look for other climate solutions.

ZAELKE: You can't expect one treaty system to address every cause of climate change. It's too complex of a problem.

JOYCE: A growing number of scientists agree. They're focusing less on CO2 and more on other things that warm the planet, especially ozone and black carbon. Black carbon is mostly soot from burning wood, charcoal and dung.

Climate scientist Drew Shindell, with NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies, says ozone and soot live in the air for only a few months or years before they degrade or fall to Earth. If you slow or stop producing them, pretty soon the atmosphere will be fairly soot and ozone-free.

PROFESSOR DREW SHINDELL: So these things really have an immediate and quite powerful, in many cases, effect on climate both at global and regional scales.

JOYCE: Carbon dioxide, on the other hand, stays in the atmosphere for much longer. So, curbing CO2 from smokestacks won't show benefits for many decades.

Shindell says cutting ozone and soot could slow warming by half a degree Celsius by 2050.

SHINDELL: By averting a half a degree of projected warming, that's really a substantial portion of whether the planet really goes over two degrees or stays below that.

JOYCE: Two degrees warmer is when most climate scientists say bad things start happening to the planet.

Shindell says there are economic reasons for cutting ozone and soot, as well. For example, ozone is created when methane gets into the atmosphere. Methane is essentially natural gas; it escapes from coal mines, livestock waste ponds and pipelines. It's valuable, and capturing it saves money. Also, ozone damages commercial crops and causes smog. As for soot, it causes respiratory disease and millions of premature deaths.

SHINDELL: If you factor in the air quality benefits and their large effects on health, then you find the reductions are really giving you benefits.

JOYCE: Benefits that outweigh the costs.

Shindell bases his calculations on wide-ranging assumptions about global health and economic gains, as well as what it would all cost. The numbers vary widely and are likely to be questioned. But the study does confirm others that say ozone and soot should be added to CO2 on the climate hit list.

And climate activist Durwood Zaelke says that unlike carbon dioxide, the tools to reduce these pollutants are familiar.

ZAELKE: We have laws and we have institutions in most countries that already know something about controlling this. We already know the technology. We already know how to do it.

JOYCE: And it wouldn't take an international treaty to do it, either.

Shindell's research appears in the journal Science.

Christopher Joyce, NPR News. Transcript provided by NPR, Copyright NPR.