The new British Prime Minister Theresa May announced six members of her cabinet today.

Amid a sweeping crackdown on dissent in Egypt, security forces have forcibly disappeared hundreds of people since the beginning of 2015, according to a new report from Amnesty International.

It's an "unprecedented spike," the group says, with an average of three or four people disappeared every day.

The Republican Party, as it prepares for its convention next week has checked off item No. 1 on its housekeeping list — drafting a party platform. The document reflects the conservative views of its authors, many of whom are party activists. So don't look for any concessions to changing views among the broader public on key social issues.

Many public figures who took to Twitter and Facebook following the murder of five police officers in Dallas have faced public blowback and, in some cases, found their employers less than forgiving about inflammatory and sometimes hateful online comments.

As Venezuela unravels — with shortages of food and medicine, as well as runaway inflation — President Nicolas Maduro is increasingly unpopular. But he's still holding onto power.

"The truth in Venezuela is there is real hunger. We are hungry," says a man who has invited me into his house in the northwestern city of Maracaibo, but doesn't want his name used for fear of reprisals by the government.

The wiry man paces angrily as he speaks. It wasn't always this way, he says, showing how loose his pants are now.

Ask a typical teenage girl about the latest slang and girl crushes and you might get answers like "spilling the tea" and Taylor Swift. But at the Girl Up Leadership Summit in Washington, D.C., the answers were "intersectional feminism" — the idea that there's no one-size-fits-all definition of feminism — and U.N. climate chief Christiana Figueres.

Copyright 2016 NPR. To see more, visit http://www.npr.org/.

Copyright 2016 NPR. To see more, visit http://www.npr.org/.

Copyright 2016 NPR. To see more, visit http://www.npr.org/.

Copyright 2016 NPR. To see more, visit http://www.npr.org/.

Pages

Iran's New President Hints At Easing Internet Controls

Jul 15, 2013
Originally published on July 15, 2013 5:10 am

Iran's President-elect Hasan Rowhani has already called for less filtering of the Internet, saying Iran must maintain its principles, but also needs to engage with the wider world.

"We should rectify our relations with the world," Rowhani said in remarks carried by Iran's Press TV. "Gone are the days when a wall could be built around the country.... Today there are no more walls."

There are certainly walls in Iran's cyberspace today – thousands of sites are blocked as dangerous or offensive, and technology to circumvent government filters is banned. An aggressive cyber-police corps actively hunts for those trying to get around state controls.

Conservatives Push Back

Iran's conservatives are also active in the debate, fearful of encroaching Western and secular values via the Internet. Even as Rowhani called for less filtering, Iran's communications minister announced that every Iranian would be assigned a national email address. Analysts say those will almost certainly be avoided by reformers and anyone else who doesn't want the authorities to read his or her emails.

Analysts see the debate over the Internet as one useful indicator of Iran's future direction. Official figures show that more than half of Iranians use the Internet, despite government obstacles.

Collin Anderson, an independent researcher on issues of censorship and surveillance in authoritarian countries, recently collaborated with Small Media on a report on Iran's web-filtering practices.

He says conservatives defending the government's Internet policies were handed a great gift with the recent revelations of large-scale data gathering and surveillance programs in the United States like PRISM.

He says it was easy for commentators to gloss over the differences between the Iranian and U.S. programs and claim that Iran really isn't doing anything unusual.

"And so you actually saw a lot of discussion of PRISM. And this was a way of legitimizing the actions of the [Iranian] state by saying, 'Hey look, everyone does this, including you know, supposedly the herald of the ideals of freedom of expression and privacy,'" says Anderson.

More Freedom, But When?

Over time, Anderson and other analysts believe the pull toward greater Internet freedom will be irresistible. But in the current political climate, Rowhani is likely to move slowly.

Anderson says he may not, for instance, push for an immediate lifting of the bans on social media sites such as Facebook and Twitter. Rowhani could, Anderson says, focus on a more pragmatic problem that has plagued Iran since 2006, a cap on broadband speeds at a very old-fashioned 128 kb per second.

"(That's) not even close to the international standard, it's not even close to what any country regionally or on the same socio-economic scale has as far as broadband," he says.

"That was initially applied to restrict information and make filtering easier, but it's fundamentally denied access to all sorts of economic development or media opportunities," Anderson explains. "I think that cap will probably be one of the first things to go."

It's The Economy

If broadband speeds increase and other controls are relaxed, it won't be just reformers and Web surfers cheering.

Ali Ansari, a professor of Iranian history at the University of St. Andrews in Scotland, says if Rowhani wants to follow through on campaign promises to improve Iran's staggering economy, he may want to enlist the business sector in a push for a faster and more useful Internet.

"There is this very powerful argument that if Iran wants to rebuild its economy it's going to have to make full use of its resources, it has to make full use of its human talent, and part of this is also being in communication with the outside world and not to be fearful of it," he says. "So I think this is something that is undoubtedly coming."

As with other areas of reform, Internet freedom advocates are hoping for positive steps from Rowhani. But given his reputation as a moderate, they're may not be big steps, at least not right away.

Copyright 2013 NPR. To see more, visit http://www.npr.org/.

Transcript

DAVID GREENE, HOST:

Internet users inside and outside of Iran were thrilled to hear president-elect Hasan Rowhani say recently that the government should not be filtering the Internet. Soon after, however, the current government announced a new push to tighten government controls over emails and continue efforts to create an Iran-only internet. NPR's Peter Kenyon has more from Istanbul on whether Rowhani's presidency heralds a more open Internet in Iran.

PETER KENYON, BYLINE: In recent remarks carried by Iran's press TV, Rowhani says that Iran must maintain its principles but it also needs to engage with the outside world.

(SOUNDBITE OF STATEMENT)

PRESIDENT-ELECT HASAN ROWHANI: (Foreign language spoken)

KENYON: We should rectify our relations with the world, said the president-elect, adding that gone are the days when a wall could be built around the country. Today there are no more walls. There are certainly cyber-walls still inside Iran - thousands of sites are blocked as offensive or dangerous, and technology to help avoid government filters is banned.

An aggressive cyber police corps is constantly hunting for those trying to get around state controls. Even as Rowhani calls for less filtering and relaxed media controls, however, the communications minister announced that every Iranian will be assigned a national email address. Analysts say these will almost certainly be avoided by reformers and anyone else who doesn't want his or her messages read by the authorities.

Official figures show more than half of Iran's population uses the Internet, so this debate is followed closely. Much of the push against greater online freedom comes from hard-line clerical leaders determined to keep out what they see as destructive Western secular ideas. Collin Anderson, an independent researcher on issues of censorship and surveillance in authoritarian countries, says the government was handed a gift with the recent revelations of America's own sweeping data-gathering and surveillance programs, with names like PRISM.

COLLIN ANDERSON: And so, you actually saw a lot of discussion of PRISM. And this was a way of legitimizing the actions of the state by saying, hey, look, everyone does this, including you know, supposedly the herald of the ideals of freedom of expression and privacy.

KENYON: Over time, Anderson believes the pull toward greater openness in Iran will be irresistible. But in the current political climate, he expects Rowhani to move cautiously - probably not pushing for a lifting of the ban on Facebook or Twitter, for example. What he might have more success with, Anderson says, is a more significant problem that has plagued Iran since 2006 - the cap on broadband speeds at a very old-fashioned 128 kilobytes per second.

ANDERSON: Which is not even close to the international standard. It's not even close to what any country regionally or on the same socio-economic scale has as far as broadband. That was initially applied to restrict information and make filtering easier, but it's fundamentally denied access to all sorts of economic development or media opportunities. I think that cap will probably be one of the first things to go.

KENYON: If the broadband cap is lifted, it won't be just reformers and web surfers cheering. Ali Ansari, professor of Iranian history at the university of St. Andrews in Scotland, says if Rowhani wants to follow through on his promise to improve Iran's staggering economy he could do worse than to enlist the business sector in a push for a faster and more useful Internet.

ALI ANSARI: I mean, you know, how does business function if you close it all down? There is this very powerful argument that if Iran wants to rebuild its economy it's going to have to make full use of its resources. It has to make full use of its human talent, and part of this is also being in communication with the outside world and not to be fearful of it. So I think this is something that is undoubtedly coming.

KENYON: As with other areas of reform in Iran, Internet freedom advocates are hoping for positive steps from Rowhani - but given his reputation as a moderate, not necessarily big steps. Peter Kenyon, NPR News, Istanbul.

(SOUNDBITE OF MUSIC)

GREENE: This is NPR News. Transcript provided by NPR, Copyright NPR.