The Boston Citgo sign, all 3,600 square LED feet of which has served as the backdrop to Red Sox games since 1965, is now officially a "pending landmark."

Spanish Surrealist Salvador Dalí spent much of the 1940s in the U.S., avoiding World War II and its aftermath. He was a well-known fixture on the art scene in Monterey, Calif. — and that's where the largest collection of Dalí's work on the West Coast is now open to the public.

Copyright 2016 Fresh Air. To see more, visit Fresh Air.

The middle of summer is when the surprises in publishing turn up. I'm talking about those quietly commanding books that publishers tend to put out now, because fall and winter are focused on big books by established authors. Which brings us to The Dream Life of Astronauts, by Patrick Ryan, a very funny and touching collection of nine short stories that take place in the 1960s and '70s around Cape Canaveral, Fla.

When the United Kingdom voted to leave the European Union last month, the seaside town of Port Talbot in Wales eagerly went along with the move. Brexit was approved by some 57 percent of the town's residents.

Now some of them are wondering if they made the wrong decision.

The June 23 Brexit vote has raised questions about the fate of the troubled Port Talbot Works, Britain's largest surviving steel plant — a huge, steam-belching facility that has long been the town's biggest employer.

Solar Impulse 2 has landed in Cairo, completing the penultimate leg of its attempt to circumnavigate the globe using only the power of the sun.

The trip over the Mediterranean included a breathtaking flyover of the Pyramids. Check it out:

President Obama is challenging Americans to have an honest and open-hearted conversation about race and law enforcement. But even as he sits down at the White House with police and civil rights activists, Obama is mindful of the limits of that approach.

"I've seen how inadequate words can be in bringing about lasting change," the president said Tuesday at a memorial service for five law officers killed last week in Dallas. "I've seen how inadequate my own words have been."

Mice watching Orson Welles movies may help scientists explain human consciousness.

At least that's one premise of the Allen Brain Observatory, which launched Wednesday and lets anyone with an Internet connection study a mouse brain as it responds to visual information.

The FBI says it is giving up on the D.B. Cooper investigation, 45 years after the mysterious hijacker parachuted into the night with $200,000 in a briefcase, becoming an instant folk figure.

"Following one of the longest and most exhaustive investigations in our history," the FBI's Ayn Dietrich-Williams said in a statement, "the FBI redirected resources allocated to the D.B. Cooper case in order to focus on other investigative priorities."

This is the first in a series of essays concerning our collective future. The goal is to bring forth some of the main issues humanity faces today, as we move forward to uncertain times. In an effort to be as thorough as possible, we will consider two kinds of threats: those due to natural disasters and those that are man-made. The idea is to expose some of the dangers and possible mechanisms that have been proposed to deal with these issues. My intention is not to offer a detailed analysis for each threat — but to invite reflection and, hopefully, action.

Pages

With Elbows, Cortisone Shots May Hurt More Than Help

Feb 6, 2013
Originally published on February 6, 2013 1:17 pm

Go to the doctor with an aching elbow, and the prescription may well be a cortisone shot. Ah, relief!

But that short-term gain may make for long-term pain. There's mounting evidence that cortisone shots, long the first response for the painful tendon problem known as tennis elbow, increases the risk of continued problems or relapse one year out.

That may come as a surprise to those who have availed themselves of this seemingly miraculous quick fix.

The latest study, published in JAMA, the Journal of the American Medical Association, found that 83 percent of people who got a cortisone shot for tennis elbow had recovered or improved one year later. Sounds good, right? Well, 96 percent who got placebo shots did just as well. The study included 165 people in Brisbane, Australia.

And about half of the people getting cortisone shots had symptoms return within a year, compared to 12 percent who didn't get the treatment.

Those results are similar to other studies of tendon damage in elbows, shoulders, and Achilles tendons found steroids less helpful long term than taking a "wait and see" approach. The researchers from the University of Queensland who did this study also wanted to see if physical therapy would counteract the lack of long-term improvement. It didn't.

"The recommendation from this study is not to combine physiotherapy and corticosteroid injections, or to do corticosteriod injection," Bill Vicenzino, chair in sports physiotherapy and a co-author of the study, said in an email.

Vicenzino says that advice doesn't apply to acute tendon injuries, like snapping an ACL in the knee. Cortisone shots can help reduce the pain caused by those sorts of acute injuries, though, they are sometimes used to excess by athletes eager to get back on the field.

The pain of tennis elbow (official name, lateral epicondylalgia) seems to be caused by damage to the tendons that attach the forearm muscles to the elbow, but not by inflammation. It's becoming more common, and can be caused by repetitive gripping of a computer mouse, smartphone, or other gizmo, not just a tennis racket.

It's not clear why cortisone, a steroid, would quickly relieve the pain from that sort of tendon damage. It may be due to cortisone's effect on chemicals produced by the damaged tendon — or by placebo effect. Doctors have long recommended that patients have no more than three cortisone shots in a body part per year, but there's no firm data on whether that's too much, or not enough.

"The harder you drill into the data, the more it seems we may be better off doing nothing," says Leon Benson, an upper-extremity surgeon at the Illinois Bone and Joint Institute in Glenview, Ill. "If you do nothing at all for this condition, it will eventually go away."

But eventually can mean three years, for tennis elbow. So Benson says he'll continue to recommend cortisone shots to his patients, along with pain relievers like Advil, and physical therapy. "The interest in treating this is for patients to have better quality of life sooner rather than later."

That's a different point of view than that of Mary Ann Wilmarth, chief of physical therapy at Harvard University Health Systems. "If you can get through the short term without [a shot], you may be better off," she told Shots.

The JAMA study found that physical therapy helped improve symptoms four weeks out, but showed no more benefits than placebo a year after treatment. But the therapy participants took half as much pain medication, and didn't have the problems with recurrence seen with cortisone shots.

It's disheartening to see a lack of positive physical therapy results, Wilmarth says. "But there were actually better results with PT than with corticosteroids."

Copyright 2013 NPR. To see more, visit http://www.npr.org/.